Manual Testing vs Automated Testing


As discussed in the previous tutorial, testing can be done either manual or automation or a combination of both. So, first of all, let's understand manual testing in brief.

Manual testing:

Manual testing is the testing of software that is performed to find bugs in software application under development without taking help of automation testing tool. In manual testing, tests are executed manually by QA analytics and tester checks all the essential features of the given software or application. 

In this process, the software testers prepare the test cases for different modules, execute the test cases, generate the test reports without the help of any automation software testing tools and report the test result to the manager. 

Manual testing is a classical method for all types of testing and helps to find bugs or defects in the software application. An experienced tester generally conducts software testing process but it is time and resource consuming.

Manual process can also be repetitive and boring tasks for a tester because nobody wants to fill up the same forms time after time. As a result, testers have a difficult time to engage in this process. Due to which the possibility of errors is more to occur.

Automation testing:

Automated testing is a process in which testers create test scripts by writing code to automate test execution. Automation testers use appropriate automation tools to create test scripts and run tests. The goal of test automation is to perform testing in better, faster, and cheaper ways.

Automated testing entirely depends on the pre-scripted test which runs automatically and compares actual result with expected results. It helps the tester to determine whether an application performs as expected or not.

Automation testing provides consistent and accurate results free of human errors. Automated testing helps to execute the repetitive task and regression testing without the intervention of manual tester. It is very useful when the project is large.
Difference between Automation Testing vs Manual Testing

Complete Difference between Manual and Automation Testing


Table shows a brief comparison between automation testing and manual testing:

Manual Testing Automation Testing
1. Manual testing is a process which is conducted manually without taking help of any automation tool. 1. Automation testing is a process which is conducted with the help of automation tools.
2. All the phases of software testing life cycle (STLC) such as test planning, test deployment, result analysis, test execution, bugs tracking,
and reporting tools come under the category of manual testing and is conducted all phases successfully by human efforts.
2. In automation testing, all phases of
STLC are conducted by the various open-source and purchased tools such as selenium, QTP, J meter, Load Runner, Win Runner, etc.
3. Without starting manual testing, we cannot start automation testing. 3. Automation testing is a continuous process of manual testing.
4. Manual testing is not accurate all the time due to human generated error. Therefore, it is less reliable. 4. Since Automation testing is performed by tools or scripts. So it is more reliable.
5. Manual testing is slow and time-consuming. It takes lot of time. 5. Since automated testing is performed by software tools. So, it is faster than any manual approach and takes less time.
6. In manual testing, investment is required for human resources. 6. Investment is required for testing tools in the case of automation testing.
7. In manual testing, testers can do Random Testing to find bugs. 7. Tester always tests through running test script in case of automation testing.
8. We can find more bugs in manual testing by error guessing than automation testing. 8. In automation testing, we cannot find more bugs by error guessing.
9. Manual testing is not useful in case of long-running and repetitive testing. The results might be inconsistent and error-prone. 9. Automated testing can be consistent and free from human-generated error in such cases.
10. In manual testing, Regression testing process is difficult to perform. 10. In automation testing, Regression testing process is easy to perform by tools.
11. It is not costly. 11. Initial cost of automation testing is more than manual testing but useful always.
12. To execute the test cases manually, more testers are required. 12. After making the Automation test suites, fewer testers are required to execute the test cases.
13. This testing is considered as low quality. 13. This testing is considered as high quality.
14. Batch testing cannot be performed in manual testing. 14. Multiple types of batch testing can be performed in automation testing.
15. There is no need of programming language in manual testing. 15. Need of programming knowledge must be in automation testing.

When to use Manual vs Automated Testing?


Manual Testing is best suited to the following scenarios. They are as follows:

1. Exploratory Testing: 

This kind of testing needs tester's knowledge, experiences, analytical and logical skills, creativity, and intuition. This testing is most useful when the specification documents have been poorly written, not much is known about functionality specifications, or when there is no enough time to come up with the detailed design. we require human skills to execute the exploratory testing process in this scenario.

2. Usability Testing:

This testing is done when we need to measure how much software or application product is user-friendly, efficient, and convenient for the end-users. In this testing, human observation is the most important factor. Therefore, the manual approach is more preferable.

3. Ad-hoc Testing:

Adhoc testing is that kind of testing which is performed without any formal test plan, test scenario, test cases, or test data. Testers try to test software application with different combinations of functionalities on the basis of understanding, experiences and error guessing. This testing also helps to identify some hidden bugs/defects that might have been missed in all previous test efforts.   

Automated testing is preferred in the following scenarios. They are as follows:

1. Regression Testing:

Regression testing is a type of testing which is performed in timely manner when the code is frequently changed. It is the most important software maintenance activities to ensure quality, reliability, and validation of software after modification. It is regarded as expensive activities. Hence, Regression testing is best-suited for automation testing.

2. Load Testing:

Load testing is a type of non-functional software testing which is done to understand the behavior of the application under a specific expected load. If the code is changed several times, it is also better to perform load testing again. Thus, automated testing is the best way to complete the load test efficiently. 

3. Repeated Execution:

 Automated testing is a very useful way when you have to perform repeated execution of the same test cases. 

4. Performance Testing:

This kind of testing is done to determine the speed, responsiveness, and stability of a software application. It helps to identify the nature or behavior of a software application under their expected workload. Automated testing is the best way to conduct performance testing.

Final words
Hope that this tutorial has covered almost all the important points related to the basic differences between automation testing and manual testing. I hope that you will have understood the differences between them and enjoyed this topic.