C vs Java | 26 Vital Difference between C and Java

Introduction to C language

C is a procedural, middle-level, compiled, and general-purpose programming language developed at AT & T’s Bell Laboratories of the USA in 1972. It is used to write a program.

Procedural programming language is that language where data is shared among all the functions. It focuses on doing things rather than using data. It is based on the sequence of instructions.

C language was designed and developed by a man named Dennis Ritchie. It is easier to learn than Java. It connects the features of Low level as well as High-level Language. Therefore, it’s considered a middle-level Language.

Introduction to Java Language

Java is a high-level, object-oriented, interpreted, and general-purpose programming language developed by Sun Microsystems of USA in 1991.

Object-oriented programming language is that language where data is focused, rather than doing things. It is mainly based on four principles: Encapsulation, Abstraction, Inheritance, and Polymorphism.

Java was originally named OAK and is developed by James Gosling in 1995.

Now, let’s understand the complete difference between C and Java language (C vs Java).

Difference between C vs Java


1. Invention:

  • C was invented by Dennis M. Ritchie in 1972 at Bell Lab of USA.
  • Java was invented by James Gosling in 1995.

2. Types of language:

  • C is a structural and procedural programming language.
  • Java is a purely object-oriented programming language because everything in java is an object. All the program code and data remain within classes and objects.

3. Language level:

  • C is a middle-level programming language because it combines both machine-level and high-level languages.
  • Java is a high-level programming language because the translation of program source code takes place into machine language using compiler or interpreter.

4. Approach:

  • C language follows the top-down approach to design the application program.
  • Java language follows the bottom-up approach to design the application program.

5. Translation:

  • C is considered a compiled language because it converts the code into machine language so that it could be understood by the machine or system.
  • Java is an interpreted language because the source code is first converted into bytecode by the compiler and then that bytecode is then executed by the JVM (Java Virtual Machine).

6. Platform Dependency:

  • C is platform-dependent or system-dependent.
  • Java is platform-independent. Program source code can be easily moved from one computer system to another, anywhere, and anytime.

7. Keywords:

  • There are 32 keywords in the C language.
  • Java has 50 keywords.

8. OOPs Concepts:

  • C does not follow OOPs concepts mechanism.
  • Java follows OOPs concepts mechanism.

9. File Extension:

  • Source code file is saved with the extension .c.
  • In Java, source code file is saved with the extension .java.

10. Variable Declaration:

  • In C programming, variables are declared at the beginning of the block.
  • We can declare variables anywhere in Java programming.

11. Security:

  • C is not secure.
  • Java is a fully secured language.

12. Overloading:

  • C does not support overloading functionality.
  • Java supports method overloading concept that helps in code readability.

13. Pointers:

  • Pointer concept is supported by the C programming language.
  • Java does not support pointers.

14. Call by value and Call by reference:

  • C supports both call by value and call by reference.
  • Java supports only call by value.

15. Robust:

  • C is not robust.
  • Java is robust.

16. Exception handling:

  • Exception handling concept is not supported by C language.
  • Java supports exception handling concept.

17. Inheritance:

  • There is no inheritance concept present in the C language.
  • Java supports inheritance that helps in code reusability.

18. Threading:

  • There is no concept of threading in C language.
  • Java programming language supports the concept of threading.

19. Memory Management:

  • C programming language does not maintain memory, internally.
  • Java maintains memory, internally.

20. Preprocessors:

  • C language supports Preprocessors.
  • Java does not support Preprocessors.

21. Union and Structure:

  • Union and structure data types are supported by C.
  • Whereas Java does not support union and structure data types.

22. Storage classes:

  • C supports the storage classes.
  • Whereas Java technology does not support the storage classes.

23. Virtual keywords:

  • C language supports virtual keywords.
  • Whereas virtual keywords are not supported by Java.

24. Go-to statements:

  • Go-to statements are supported by C language.
  • Whereas Java does not supports go-to statements.

25. Default members:

  • Default members of C are public whereas default members of Java are private.

26. Applications:

  • C programming language is mainly used to develop system applications and firmware.
  • Whereas Java programming language is mainly used to develop enterprise applications and web-based applications.

Hope that this tutorial has covered the 26 top vital difference between C vs Java that you should know. I hope that you will have understood every important point.
Thanks for reading!!!
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