In the previous tutorial, you have learned how object is created in java. In this tutorial, we are going to learn the Object declaration and initialization in java with examples. We will also learn the different ways to initialize the value or data of the state of the objects inside the class. So, let's start.

Object Declaration in Java

The process of defining the variable along with its data type and name is called the declaration of the state of an object. In other words, it is also called a declaration of variable.
For example, If we declare the name and city as variables with data type String, these variables are called instance variables in Java.

    class College{ //Declaration of Instance variables. String name; String city; }

Object Initialization in Java

The process of assigning the value of the variable is called initialization of state of an object. In other words, Initialization is the process of storing data into an object. 
For example:
In below example, we have initialized variables name and city with "PIET" and "Nagpur" respectively.
    class College { // Initialize the value of variables. String name="PIET"; String city="Nagpur"; }

How to Initialize State of Object in Java?

There are three ways by which we can initialize the state of an object. In other words, we can initialize the value of variables in Java by using three ways. They are as follows:
1. By using constructor
2. By using a reference variable
3. By using a method. 
Object initialization in java
Let's see one by one with a practical example program step by step.

Object Initialization in Java by using Constructor

A constructor in Java is a block of code within a class that is used to initialize objects of class. In other words, constructor is used to initializing the value of variables. The constructor should not have any return type even void also because if there is return type then JVM would consider as a method, not a constructor.

So, let's create an example program where we will store data into the object using a constructor.
Program source code 1:
    package objectPrograms; public class Student { // Step 1: Declaration of instance variables i.e state of the objects. String name; int rollNo; int age; // Step 2: Declaration of a default constructor. The constructor name must be the same as the class name. Student(){ // Step 3: Initialization of the values of state of objects i.e values of the variables. name="Shubh"; rollNo=05; age=22; } // Step 4: Declare an instance method and print the values of instance variables. void display(){ System.out.println("Student's name:" +name); // Since this is instance area. That's why, we can directly call the instance variables. System.out.println("Student's roll no: " +rollNo); System.out.println("Student's age:" +age); } // Step 5: Declare the main method. It is a static method. So, it is a static area. public static void main(String[] args) { // Step 6: Create an object of the class. Student st=new Student(); // It will call the default constructor. // Step 7: Now, call the display method using an object reference variable st because we cannot call non-static members directly in the static region. st.display(); } }
    Output: Student's name: Shubh Student's roll no: 5 Student's age:22

Object Initialization in Java by using Reference variable

We can also initialize the value of objects through reference variable. So, let's make a program where we will initialize value of variables using object reference variable. 

Program source code 2:
    package objectPrograms; public class Marks { // Declare the instance variables. This is an instance area or region. String subject1; int sub1Marks; String subject2; int sub2Marks; // Declare the main method. This is a static region. public static void main(String[] args) { // Create an object of the class. Marks mk=new Marks(); // Initialize the value of the objects through object reference variables mk.subject1="Science"; mk.sub1Marks=90; mk.subject2="Maths"; mk.sub2Marks=99; // Here, we are adding total marks with data type int. int totalMarks=90+99; // Now call marks using object reference variable and print the values. System.out.println("Marks in Science:" +mk.sub1Marks); System.out.println("Marks in Maths:" +mk.sub2Marks); System.out.println("Total Marks: " +totalMarks); } }
    Output: Marks in Science: 90 Marks in Maths: 99 Total Marks: 189
In the preceding example program, we have called variables using object reference variable "mk" and initialized them.

Object Initialization in Java by using Method

A method in java is a set of code used to write the logic of the applications which perform some specific task or operation. When a method is called, it returns the value to the caller. It can also perform a task without returning any value. It can be called from anywhere. Therefore, we can initialize the value of an object by using a method.

Let's create a program where we will create two objects of the Rectangle class and initialize the value to these objects by calling perValue() method. 
Besides it, we will display state (data/value) of the objects by calling the calculate() method using the object reference variable because we cannot call directly the non-static member into the static region.
Program source code 3: 
    package objectPrograms; public class Rectangle { int length; int breadth; // Declare an instance method and initialize the parameters l and b with data type int. void perValue(int l, int b){ // Here we are setting the name of parameter different from the name of the variable because we are not using this reference. length=l; breadth=b; } void calculate(){ int perimeter=2*(length+breadth); System.out.println("Perimeter of the Rectangle:" +perimeter); } public static void main(String[] args) { // Create the first object of the class. Rectangle rt=new Rectangle(); rt.perValue(20,30); // It will call the perValue method and initialize the values. After that it will be automatically initialized to the instance variables. rt.calculate(); // it will call calculate() method to display the output. // Create the second object of the class. Rectangle rt2=new Rectangle(); rt2.perValue(50,50); rt2.calculate(); } }
    Output: Perimeter of the Rectangle:100 Perimeter of the Rectangle:200
Program source code 4: 
In this example program, we will calculate square and perimeter of a value 45 but we will initialize value of variable inside the constructor. We will declare two methods calArea() and calPerimeter() where we will write logic for calculation of area and perimeter. Let' see the following source code. 
    package squareProgram; public class Square { int side; Square(){ side=45; // Initialization of value of the instance variable. } void calArea(){ int area=side*side; System.out.println("Area: " +area); } void calPerimeter(){ int perimeter=4*side; System.out.println("Perimeter: " +perimeter); } public static void main(String[] args) { Square sq=new Square(); sq.calArea(); sq.calPerimeter(); } }
    Output: Area: 2025 Perimeter: 180
In all the above example programs, we declared the main() method inside the class. Now, let's see another example in which we will define the main() method outside the class. 
It is a better approach than previous examples because we create several classes in real-time project development and use it from another class. So, let's see the following source code.
Program source side 5: 
    package circleProgram; public class Circle { int radius; void area(int r){ radius=r; } void calArea(){ double area= 3.14*radius*radius; System.out.println(" Area of circle: " + area); } void calCircumference(){ double circum=2*3.14*radius; System.out.println("Circumference of circle: " +circum); } }
    package circleProgram; public class CircleTest { // Declaration of main method outside the class. public static void main(String[] args) { Circle cr=new Circle(); cr.area(30); cr.calArea(); cr.calCircumference(); } }
    Output: Area of circle: 2826.0 Circumference of circle: 188.4
Final words 
Hope that this tutorial has covered all the concepts related to the object declaration and initialization in java with different example and programs. I hope that you will have understood this topic and enjoyed it.
Thanks for reading!
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